Types, definitions, drawings and principles of work of transformers

MateriBelajar.Co.id This time we will talk in detail about transformers or transformers with understanding and types of transformers, as well as their principles of work and drawings. See the discussion below for more details


Definition of transmission

transformer is a device that uses electromagnetic induction to transfer electrical energy between two or more circuits.

transformer type

Transformer step-down transformer

step up

A step-up transformer is a transformer that has more secondary windings than the primary winding, so it has a function as a voltage booster. This transformer is commonly used in power plants as a voltage booster that is converted by the generator into a high voltage that is used for long-distance transmission.

step down

The step-down transformer has fewer secondary windings than the primary winding, so it has a voltage sinking function. This type of transformer is easy to find, especially with AC-DC adapters.


This type of transformer consists of an electrically continuous winding with a center conductor. Part of the primary winding and is the secondary winding. The phase current in the secondary winding is opposite to the primary current, so the secondary winding can be made with a thinner wire than an ordinary transformer for the same performance.

The advantage of the autotransformer is its small size and lower losses than the two-winding type. But this type of transformer cannot provide electrical isolation between the primary and secondary windings.

In addition, the autotransformer can only be used a few times as a voltage booster

Autotransformer variable

A true variable autotransformer is an autotransformer whose center lines can be changed, creating any primary-secondary turns ratio.

isolation transformer

Isolation transformers have the same number of secondary windings as the primary winding, the secondary voltage is equal to the primary voltage. But in some designs the secondary winding is made a little more to compensate for the loss. This transformer has a function of isolation between the two circuits. For audio applications, this type of transformer has been replaced by coupling

pulse transformer

The pulse transformer is a transformer specially designed to output pulse waves. This transformer uses a core material that saturates quickly until, after the primary current reaches a certain point, the magnetic flux stops changing. Because the induced emf is formed in the secondary winding only when there is a change in magnetic flux, the transformer delivers power when the core is unsaturated, ie when the current in the primary winding reverses direction.

three-phase transformer

Three-phase transformers are three transformers that are specially connected to each other. The primary winding is generally star (Y) connected and the secondary winding is delta connected

losses in the transformer

In practice, there are several losses, including:

Loss Copper.
I 2 R losses in the copper windings are caused by the resistance of the copper and the electrical current flowing through it.

clutch loss.
Losses that occur because the primary-secondary coupling is not perfect such that all of the magnetic flux induced by the primary does not break the secondary. This loss can be reduced by winding the windings in layers between the primary and secondary windings.

Wild loss of capacity.
Losses due to stray capacitance in the transformer windings. This loss affects the efficiency of the transformer at high frequencies. This loss can be reduced by semi-randomly winding the primary and secondary windings

hysteresis loss.
Losses that occur when the AC primary current reverses direction. This is because the transformer core cannot change the direction of the magnetic flux instantaneously. This loss can be reduced by using a low resistance core material.

loss of skin effect.
As with other conductors, alternating current always flows, this current tends to flow on the surface of the conductor. This increases the capacitance loss and increases the relative resistance of the windings. This loss can be reduced by using a stranded wire, which is made up of several small wires insulated from one another. For radio frequencies, Geronggong wire or a thin sheet of copper is used instead of ordinary wire.

eddy current loss.
Losses caused by the input emf create a current in the magnetic core, which opposes the change in magnetic flux and creates an emf. Due to the changing magnetic flux, there is a repulsion of the magnetic flux in the core material. This loss is reduced when a multi-layer core is used.

working principle

The transformer works on the principle of electromagnetic induction. The AC input voltage across the primary winding creates a magnetic flux that is ideally fully connected to the secondary winding.

The alternating flux induces an electromotive force in the secondary winding. With perfect efficiency, the entire power of the primary winding is transferred to the secondary winding.

That’s a full discussion of the transformer, hopefully useful

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