History, basic techniques, game rules and terms

Taekwondo is a martial art from South Korea that has spread worldwide. In recent years, its popularity has increased.

More and more young Indonesians are also keen to learn it. Its origins date back more than a thousand years when Korea was still a kingdom.

Not just a sport, but also part of the country’s art and culture.

This time we will discuss the origins or history of Taekwondo which is one of the most popular martial arts in the world.

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The history of taekwondo cannot be separated from the development of traditional Korean culture

Taekwondo: history, basic techniques, competition rules and important terms

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The name Taekwondo comes from the Korean language which is made up of three words viz; Taekwonand do. tae means feet, kwon means slap with the hand, and do means art.

So the general meaning is the art of using legs or hands as a weapon to defend yourself.

The development of Taekwondo in Korea dates back to 37 AD during the Goguryeo Dynasty. The society of that time called it, for example, with several different versions; subac, taekkyon or Taeyeon.

Until the early 20th century, taekwondo was still featured in cultural shows for royal knights.

During the Japanese colonial period in Korea, taekwondo and several other traditional cultures were severely suppressed.

By the time of Korean independence on August 15, 1945, people were just beginning to teach this martial art again.

Taekwondo master named Kim Un Yong founded the International Taekwondo Federation or World Taekwondo Federation headquartered in the city of Seoul. Since then, the world began to appreciate Taekwondo.

No less than 180 defense divisions of different countries have used this martial art in army or police units.

The championship at the international level was held in 1973. Many Indonesians were also enthusiastic, but it was not until 1975 that this martial art came to Indonesia and continues to grow to this day.

Basic techniques, moves and belt levels

Taekwondo: history, basic techniques, competition rules and important terms

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In general, there are basic techniques and basic movements that Taekwondo athletes must master.

1. poomsae

A series of trains poomsae is a series of basic attack or defense moves performed to face the opponent through a specific diagram.

Each Poomse movement diagram is executed with multiple philosophies that also show the spirit or perspective of Korean society.

2. Kyukpa

Techniques for breaking hard objects kyukpa is an exercise using inanimate objects to measure the accuracy of the technique.

The target objects can be wooden boards, tiles and bricks. The technique is performed with punches, kicks, slashes or finger jabs.


fight or kyorugi is an exercise using basic techniques boomwhere the 2 fighting people also practice the technique of self-defense.

The three basic techniques mentioned above are also competition numbers that are usually held at international level. In practice there are many movements and techniques, such as the following;

  • horses or seogi
  • kick or chagi
  • Attack or kyongkyok kisul
  • parry or Makki
  • target body or go on

The following are the taekwondo belt levels and what they mean.

  1. White means for beginners
  2. Yellow means for new life
  3. Green means new shoots are growing
  4. Blue means ascending to a higher level
  5. Red means trying new challenges
  6. Black means growth

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Taekwondo game rules, scoring system and possible fouls

Taekwondo: history, basic techniques, competition rules and important terms

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In general, Taekwondo fights are divided into two parts, namely: kyorugi and poomsae each has its own rules of the game.

The rules in kyorugi is as follows;

  • The game has broken the rules of World Taekwondo Federation.
  • Games are played using a KO system (Single elimination tournament system).
  • For Kyorugi, the minimum number of participants is 4 people.
  • Competitors must have earned at least one green belt.
  • The committee will not accept or respond to protests from participants.
  • Other rules will be adjusted according to field conditions and the organizing committee.

The rules in poomsae is as follows;

  • The rules of the game are based on the rules in World Taekwondo Federation.
  • The game will use a single elimination system (Cut of robins).
  • Each participant may only participate in a maximum of 2 categories poomsae.
  • Poomsae participants must have earned at least a blue belt.
  • The minimum number of participants is 4 people.
  • The order of the games or their content is determined by the result of the draw technical meeting.
  • The match took place in two rounds.
  • The winner will be determined based on the most points.
  • The committee will not accept or respond to protests from participants.

scoring system

  • In games, the rules for scoring are 1-4.
  • Additional 1 point: for the competitor who successfully executes a forward kick with a target in the opponent’s chest.
  • Additionally 1 point: for the participant who hits the opponent while shouting (kihap).
  • Additional 2 points: for the competitor who manages to execute a kick from behind with a target in the opponent’s chest.
  • Additional 3 points: for the competitor who manages to perform a front push with the opponent’s head.
  • Additional 4 points: for the competitor who manages to perform a kick from behind with the opponent’s head.

Possible violations and gam jeom which adds 1 point to the opponent.

  • Participants attack the opponent after receiving a signal (karyo).
  • Still attacking the opponent even though the opponent has fallen.
  • Deliberately hitting an opponent with your hand.
  • The coach or participant acts, which disturbs the course of the game
  • The trainer or participant uses harsh or disrespectful language.

Important terms in Taekwondo

    History, basic techniques, game rules and important terms

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The following are important terms in Taekwondo in Korean and their translations.

  • Sabeum: Teacher.
  • Sabeus: Leader or Main Instructor.
  • seonbae: Senior.
  • hoobae: Junior.
  • Taekwondo Junshin: The principle of Taekwondo.
  • Muknyeom: Meditation.
  • khap: scream from the stomach.
  • Drums: Seragam Taekwondo.
  • Neolpyo seogi: attitude open attitude.
  • rooster chicken: posture closed posture.
  • Teuksu poom seog: special attitude.
  • Yeop jireugi: lateral blow.
  • Chi jireugi: Slap from bottom to top.
  • Dolryeo jireugi: crochet line.
  • Momtong jireugic: a blow to the solar plexus.

Hence the explanation of the sport of Taekwondo from its history to the important terms it contains. Hopefully useful.

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